Dick Gregory told police brutality jokes before Pryor, starting with his 1961 debut album. But Pryor "applied a biting, more visceral perspective while making analysis of racist policing a hallmark of his," says Jason Zinoman. "His albums and specials in that era laid the foundation for modern stand-up, and nowhere is that more true than in sets about police brutality. Some comics have broached the topic without bringing personal experience to the subject. But others, especially African-American stand-ups, have consistently examined the pain, costs and arguments around biased law enforcement in a way that has been rare in Hollywood. Pryor once said he was 'raised to hate the cops,' and his comedy was alive to the hurt and humiliations of everyday police abuse."